Thursday, July 18, 2019

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Autism Spectrum pain Causes, Reasons and wordAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined as a developmental disability that affects mickles personalities found on how they move with the world (Magalhaes and Almeida, 2010). However, Sparks and Dager (2012, p. 187) defines ASD as a serious neurodevelopmental overthrow that impairs stars ability to communicate and interact with others.Various ASD definitions argon known to be universal since they recognise it as a spectral condition (Baird et al., 2016). In his study, Umekage (2011, p. 25), indicates that ASD is a cloak-and-dagger disability coupled with fetal intellect damage as healthful as impairment of neural vitro development. Characterised by interests, activities and repetitive behaviours, ASD is so multifactorial that it varies from one case to another (Akanksha et al., 2011).Despite unhomo constituentous studies on the reasons, be attains and word of ASD, there atomic number 18 relatively unknown rationale for its causes. Chandler and Baird (2015, p. 923) posits that people with ASD need different kinds of support since their shipway of development and cultivation differ from all(prenominal) individual. The aim of this paper is to discuss the causes, reasons and intercession of ASD.Causes of ASDAlthough there be undetermined causes of ASD, scientists as headspring as medical practitioners look at that an amalgamation of transmissible and environmental factors are the two major causes of ASD (Fitzgerald and Geschwind, 2013). To start with, the cause of ASD via genetic factors is not a artless process, except a labyrinthian of onward motion that involve multiple genes.Causes of ASD GenticsAutism Spectrum DisorderAs indicated by Schechtman (2014, p.86) study, the rate of ASD development in identical twins as s headspring as monozygotic is high-pitcheder than judge in dizygotic and same-sex biovular twins. This indicates that fraternal twins only section both(prenominal) g enes, while identical twins feed equal genes and indeed genes contributes much to autism. much so, Brothers as well as sisters of children with autism see high level of autism (Fitzgerald and Geschwind, 2013). From another perspective, smith and John (2011, p. 803) in their research attributed that siblings share certain problems much(prenominal) as voice parley as well as learning embarrassingies if one of the sibling has autism. However, it is not release if autism is inherited as well as much general predisposition difficulties.To substitute or cover this probe or to get set on a use essay Contact Us TodayCauses of ASD Environmental FactorsSecondly, ASD gouge be caused by environmental factors. Environmental toxins such as mercury and thimerosoal vaccines cause autism stems (Mercer et al., 2016). More so, congenital rubella infection is one of the environmental factors that cause ASD. However, Goin-Kochel and Myers (2015, p. 172) disputes that there is any unc loudedness environmental factors causing ASD and therefore more studies needs to be done. Rich and Isager (2012, p. 410) adds approximately of the evidence proposed for environmental factors is based on case reports, which are often difficult to interpret.Reasons for ASDASD as mentioned earlier, ASD can be caused by a combine of environmental and genetic factors, however, we have reasons ASD occurs. First, Autism exists when a single gene known as tenuous X syndrome (FXS) exists in the blood (Hessl and Schneider, 2013). FXS is defined as a syndrome that is coupled with autism as well as intellectual disability (Visootsak and Picker, 2015). As per Wehner and Hagerman (2011, p. 415), Whereas ASD is a behavioural diagnosing, FXS is a medical, or more accurately, a genetic diagnosis and therefore when associated with FXS, ASD is caused by the genetic switch or mutation in the thin X gene.This alters normal blood circulation, thereof ASD. Secondly, individuals are affected by ASD w hen tuberous sclerosis, chromosome 15q and other genetic conditions subsist (Hessl and Schneider, 2013).ASD interposition MedicationsCore symptoms associated with ASD have no medication and cure, but we have medications that help to manage high energy levels of ASD, seizures, inability to focus as well as depression symptoms (Burrell and Borrego, 2012).The graduation treatment method utilised during ASD is the betimes encumbrance service. This method improves individuals development, e superfluously children with ASD (Buitelaar and Wong, 2014). These services, such as vitamin therapy, auditory training, facilitated intercourse and physical therapy improve children talk, interaction and walk.Early intervention services attribute the possibility of mind as an explanatory ASD theory that reflects on the symptom criteria (A) of the DSM-5. As per Gallese and Goldman (2012, p. 496), the theory of mind was created by genus Uta Frith, Alan Leslie and Simon Baron-Cohen in 1985 to ex plain communication effort as well as sociable interaction for people with ASD.ASD Treatment Behaviours and CommunicationThe blink of an eye method used for ASD treatment is the behaviours and communication approaches. This method involves direct, organised and structural slipway for people with ASD to participate in a given paediatric events and medication. As per Burrell and Borrego (2012, p. 424), use behaviour analysis (ABA) is utilised as a treatment of ASD via behaviour and communication approach to encourage positive and monish negative behaviours hence improving discordant skills needed during ASD treatment.This is in relation to the theory of executive dysfunction which states, Executive functions (EF) are a set of cognitive skills that are put into practice by means of self-reliant activities. Most of these EF skills are utilised by ASD patients to boost their flexibility, organisation, objectives and goals, anticipation as well as to be able to witness their impul ses (Buitelaar and Wong, 2014). Thirdly, ASD can be treated through dietetic approaches.Change in diet, such as using certain foods, mineral supplements and vitamin helps to treat certain ASD effects. However, Talalay and Zimmerman (2014) posit that although dietary approach is considered as one of the ASD treatment, there is no scientific support and recommendation.Finally, ASD can be treated using completing and alternating(a) treatments. Treatments associated with complementary and alternative approaches involve chelation, biological such as secretin, special diets and body-based systems (Burrell and Borrego, 2012).ConclusionIn conclusion, the aim of this paper was to discuss the causes, reasons and treatment of the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Being a hidden disability coupled with foetal brain damage as well as impairment of neural vitro development, ASD has varied and complex behaviours hence there is unknown treatment for core symptoms.Generally, ASD is caused by a com bination of genetic and environmental factors such as genes inheritance and environmental toxins respectively. Some of the treatments for ASD as discussed included the used of the early intervention services, the behaviours and communication approaches, dietary approaches and complementary and alternative treatments. Characterised by interests, activities and repetitive behaviours, ASD is so complex that it varies from one case to another and therefore its treatments depends on an individual case.To modify or extend this essay or to get pricing on a custom essay Contact Us TodayBibliographyAkanksha, M., Sahil, K., Premjeet, S. and Bhawna, K. (2011) Autism spectrum turnovers(ASD). internationalistic journal of research in ayurveda & pharmacy, 2(5), pp.1541- 1546.Baird, G., Simonoff, E. and Charman, T. (2016) prevalence of disorders of the autism spectrum in a population cohort of children in South Thames the Special take and Autism Project (SNAP). The lancet, 368(9531), pp.210-2 15.Burrell, L. and Borrego, J. (2012) Parents Involvement in ASD Treatment What Is Their Role?. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 19(3), pp.423-432.Buitelaar, K. and Wong, C. (2014) psychopharmacological prescriptions for people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a international study. Psychopharmacology, 231(6), pp.999-1009.Chandler, S. and Baird, G. (2015) Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. Journal of the American Academy of kid & Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), pp.921-929.Fitzgerald, R. and Geschwind, D. (2013) Autism recurrence in half(a) siblings strong support for genetic mechanisms of transmission system in ASD. Molecular psychiatry, 18(2), p.137-140.Goin-Kochel, P. and Myers, B. (2015) Congenital versus regressive onset of autism spectrum disorders Parents beliefs about causes. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20(3), pp.169-179.Gallese, V. a nd Goldman, A. (2012) Mirror neurons and the wile theory of mind-reading. Trends in cognitive sciences, 2(12), pp.493-501.Hessl, D. and Schneider, A. (2013) breakable X Syndrome (FXS). In Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders 79(2), pp. 1320-1324.Magalhaes, T. and Almeida, J. (2010) in operation(p) impact of global rare write number variation in autism spectrum disorder. Nature, 466(7304), pp.368-401.Mercer, L., Creighton, S. and Lewis, S. (2016) enatic perspectives on the causes of an autism spectrum disorder in their children. Journal of Genetic Counseling, 15(1), pp.41-50.Rich, B. and Isager, T. (2012) Mortality and causes of death in autism spectrum disorders an update. Autism, 12(4), pp.403-414.Sparks, B. and Dager, S. (2012) Brain structural abnormalities in tender children with autism spectrum disorder. Neurology, 59(2), pp.184-192.Schechtman, M. (2014) Scientifically unsupported therapies in the treatment of young children with autism disorders. Psychiatric Anna ls, 37(9), pp. 79-92.Smith, S. and John, W. (2011) Col4a1 mutation causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and genetically modifiable eyepiece dysgenesis. Human molecular genetics, 16(7), pp.798- 807.Talalay, P. and Zimmerman, A. (2014) Sulforaphane treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(43), pp.50-55.Umekage, T. (2011) necktie of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Japanese population. Journal of kind-hearted genetics, 55(3), pp. 23-32.Visootsak, J. and Picker, J. (2015) Advances in the treatment of fragile X syndrome. Pediatrics, 123(1), pp.378-390.Wehner, A. and Hagerman, R. (2011) The behavioral phenotype in fragile X symptoms of autism in very young children with fragile X syndrome, idiopathic autism, and otherdevelopmental disorders. Journal of developmental & behavioral pediatrics, 22(6), pp.409-417.To modify or extend this essay or to get pricing on a custom essay Contact Us TodayOther Links synopsis Reviewer Admin Jane Review Date 2017-07-18 Reviewed breaker point Autism Spectrum Disorder Causes, Reasons and Treatments Author Rating 5

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