Monday, January 27, 2020
The Purposes Of Different Types Of Organisations Commerce Essay An organisation is a formal structure of relationships, responsibilities and authorities through which specific objectives are achieved. A work organisation is a social arrangement for the controlled performance of collective goals (Buchanan and Huczynski, 2004). Purposes of different types of Organisation: Business organisations: To make a profit in a socially standard way. For example: Airlines, Fast food. Non-profit service organisations: They want to help to all of people without any profit. For example: NHS, Universities. Mutual-benefit organisations: Individuals join together to pursue their own self-interest. For example: Clubs, Trade Union. Commonweal organisations: They provide service to all members of a given population. For example: Fire Service, Police. Organisations by their intended purpose: Purpose Primary beneficiary Examples Business Owners Manufacturers, Fast-food, Restaurants Non profit services Clients Universities, Hospitals Mutual-benefit Members Unions, Clubs Commonweal Public at large Police, Public schools Classifying Organizations: Sector classification: Private enterprise organisations: A private sector organisation is one that is owned and controlled by private individuals, not the government and usually exists to make a profit for its shareholders. Public sector organisations: A public sector organisation is one that is controlled by the government. It is called public because the government is responsible to the entire public. Commercial interest classification: Profit oriented: Profit-oriented means pricing strategies rely on setting a product or services price to attain a specific, programmed net profit percentage. Non-profit oriented: In the broadest sense, an organisation in which no part of any net earnings can grow for the benefit of any private shareholder or individual. Size oriented classification: Large scale: To access the large-scale data sources efficiently and automatically, it is necessary to classify these data sources into different domains and categories. Medium scale: The demands on an intensely-managed landscape need a regional landscape planning system, which balances the social economic needs with geo-biological conditions. Small scale: Title for firms of a certain size which fall below certain criteria in terms of annual income, number of employees, total value of assets. Formal and Informal Organization: The Formal organization is- Deliberately planned and created. Concerned with the co-ordination of activities, Hierarchically structured with stated objectives, the specification of tasks and defined relationships of authority and responsibility. The Informal organisation is- Is flexible and loosely structured, Relationships may be left undefined, Membership is spontaneous and with varying degrees of involvement. Describe the extent to which an organisation meets the objectives of different stakeholders. [P2] Stakeholders: A shareholder is aÃ stakeholderÃ simply because he or she has spent money in a company. Therefore, those people remain for to see a good return on the investment. This may not only consist of the value of the stock increasing over time, but it may also include getting periodical dividend payments based on profitability. Organisational objectives: Objectives are defined as specific commitment to complete a measurable result within a given time frame. Importance of objectives: Targets, Measuring sticks, Commitment and Motivation. Characteristics of objectives: Organisational purpose and aims, Be realistic, Be measurable, Preferably be set by agreement, Set clear and challenging targets, Be open to adaptation, Form a network. Objectives of different Stakeholders: Owners: In a company it would be the shareholders. Owners are often thought to be the most important stakeholders because they have set up the business and give a lot of time into the company to make it successful. Owners like to see their share of profit increasing, and the value of their business increasing. Customers: Customers want superiority for money which involves providing the highest quality products at rival prices. Employees: Their stake is that the company provides them with am livelihood. They want security of employments, good rates of reward and also improvement opportunities. Suppliers: They want to feel valued by the company and want frequent orders with on time payments. Trade Unions: This is for groups of employees who seek to secure higher wages and better working conditions for their members. Governments: The government wants businesses to become successful, to create jobs and to pay taxes. Inducements and contribution of inside stakeholders: Stakeholders Contribution of the organisation Inducement to contribute Shareholders Money capital Dividends Managers Skills expertise Salaries, bonuses, status power Workforce Skills expertise Wages, bonuses, stable employment promotion Inducements contributions of outside stakeholders: Stakeholder Contribution to the organization Inducement to contribute Customers Revenue from purchase of goods and services Quality and price of goods and services Government High quality inputs Revenue from purchase of inputs Unions Free and fair collective bargaining Equitable share of inducements Community Social and economic infrastructure Revenue, taxes and employment General public Customer loyalty and reputation National pride Explain the responsibilities of an organisation and strategies employed to meet them. [P3] Responsibilities of an Organisation: Responsibilities are the most important thing in this topic. Because of an organisation have a plan. So, to success plan, they must be maintaining some responsibilities. The main aim of the research is to give a formal analysis of the relations between collective obligations to individual responsibilities. Which individual agent in a group should be held responsible if an obligation directed to the whole group is not fulfilled? To this aim, concepts from planning fiction (like plan and task allocation) and organization theory are used in order to conceptualize collective agency and the organizational structures. These concepts are formalized in a dynamic demonic logic framework, which allows us to study the connections between all these concepts. I give a formal account of the notion of coordination, power and controls intended as management of interdependencies among agents activities and show how these organizational relations together with specific task breakdown determine the responsibilities within an organization. For example: CSR (Corporate social responsibility) is an organizations moral responsibility to stakeholder groups that are affected directly or indirectly by the organizations actions. An organization can adopt a narrow or a broad stance on social responsibility. Strategies: Once clear targets have been identified, a set of strategies must be decided on to further the organisations efforts. Strategies are defined here as specific programs, initiatives, and decisions which will require resources allocated to them. They can range from the development of Strategies alliances to developing and conveyance special in-house training for customer service. These operating Strategies are usually very special given that the good plans are very clear and focused. Frequently, there may be some Strategies that are critical and yet dont get openly shared, particularly since they may be really sensitive and general knowledge of them would put you at a competitive weakness. The Strategies document the approach that will be used to meet the performance goals. They are generated by middle management and approved by top management. Every effort should be made to keep the Strategies up to date, without making major changes. Major change can also result in the termination of projects that are only partially completed and/or have not become totally effective. It should be apparent that many Strategies are generated by many different functions, supporting the business objectives. Explain how economic systems attempt to allocate resources effectively. [P4] Economics: Economic is a social science that studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses. That is, economic is the study of the trade-offs involved when choosing between alternate sets of decisions. (Lionel Robbins, 1935) The purpose of economic activity: It is openly said that the central purpose of economic activity is the production of goods and service to satisfy consumers needs want i.e. to meet people need for consumption both as a means of survival but also to meet their ever-growing demand for an improved lifestyle or standard of living. What goods and service to produce: Does the economic uses its resources to operate more hospitals or hotels? Do we make ipod Nanos or produce more coffee? How best to produce goods and service: What is the best use of our scarce resources of land labour and capital? Should school playing fields be sold off to provide more land for affordable housing? Who is to receive goods and service: What is the best method of distributing products or ensure the highest level of wants and needs are met? Who will get expensive hospital treatment-and who not? Economic Systems: An economic system is best described as a network of organisations used by a society to resolve the basic problem of what, how and for whom to produce. C:UsersKaisar HamidDesktopeconomicsystem.gif Categories of economic system: Traditional Economy: Where decision about what, how and for whom to produce are based on custom and tradition. Free market economy: Where households own resources and free markets allocate resources through the workings of the price mechanism. Planned or command economy:Ã In a planned or command system typically associated with a socialist or communist economic system. Mixed economy: In a mixed economy, some resources are owned by the public sector (government) and some resources are owned by the private sector. Sectors of production in the economy: Primary sector: This involves extraction of natural resources e.g. agriculture, forestry, fishing, quarrying, and mining. Secondary sector: This involves the production of goods in the economy, i.e. transforming materials produced by the primary sector e.g. manufacturing and the construction industry. Tertiary sector: the tertiary sector provided services such as banking, finance, insurance, retail, education and travel and tourism. Quaternary sector: The quaternary sector is involved with information processing e.g. education, research and development. Meaning of economic scarcity: Scarcity is the fundamental economic problem, in a world of limited resources. Society has insufficient productive resources to fulfil all human wants and needs. For example: Flowers such as tulips are scarce on occasion because they grow only at certain time of the year. When they supply of tulips is lower, they are scarce, or not always available. If enough people want tulips when none are available, then the demand increases. And this demand is high not because the price is high but because the supply is low. Criteria for Allocation: Appropriate means of resource allocation are necessary to achieve optimal allocation of the resource. There are several criteria used to compare of water allocation @owe aelt, 1986. Flexibility in the allocation of existing supplies, so that resource can be shifted from use to use, place, as demand change, thus allowing equating marginal values over many uses. Predictability of the allocation process, so that uncertainty (especially for transaction costs) is minimized. Equity of the allocation process should be perceived by the prospective users, providing equal opportunity gains from the resource to every potential user. Political and public acceptability, so that the allocation serves values and objectives of various segments in society. Allocate resources effectively: The business plan plays a key role in allocating resources throughout a business so that the objectives set in the plan can be met. Once you have reviewed our progress to date and identified our strategy for growth, our existing business plan may look dated and may no longer reflect our business position and future direction. When we are reviewing our business plan to cover the next stages, its important to be clear on how we will allocate our resources to make our strategy work. The allocation of scare resources: Allocation of scarce resources is a reality for health care professionals and organizations. Resource allocation issues can be particularly challenging for rural communities, where resources are not enough to meet all needs and fewer alternatives exist to resolve conflicts between competing needs. Flexibility Security Real opportunity cost Predictability Equity Political and public acceptability Assess the impact of fiscal and monetary policy on business organisations and their activities. [P5] Fiscal policy: Fiscal policy is the means by which a government adjusts its levels of spending in order to monitor and influence a nations economy. It is the sister strategy to monetary policy with which a central bank influences a nations money supply. These two policies are used in various combinations in an effort to direct a countrys economic goals. How Fiscal policy works? Objectives of fiscal policy: To fund government spending To redistribute income and wealth more evenly A way of managing demand in the economy To influence the supply side of the economy To correct the negative externalities, such as pollution and passive smoking Effects of fiscal policy: Taxation and work incentives Taxation and pattern of demand Taxation and productivity Taxation and business investment decision What is monetary policy? The Federal Reserves actions that are designed to influence the availability cost of money. Such as changing the discount rate, altering bank reserve requirements, and conducting open market operations. In general, a policy to restrict monetary growth results in tightened credit conditions and, at least temporarily, higher rates of interest. Impact of monetary policy: Control inflation: The control of inflation has become one of the dominant objectives of government economic policy in many countries. Interest rates: The price of money. Interest is what you pay when you borrow money and what you are paid when you lend your money to someone else, like a bank. Business cycles: The term business cycle refers to economy-wide fluctuations in production or economic activity over a number of months or years. Spending: Money that has actually left the governments bank account and entered the economy. Employment: The act of giving someone a job. Fiscal Monetary policys activities: The role of government in the UK economy extends far beyond its activities as a regulator of specific industries. The government also manages the overall pace of economic activity, seeking to maintain high levels of employment and stable prices. It has two main tools for achieving these objectives: fiscal policy, through which it determines the appropriate level of taxes and spending; and monetary policy, through which it manages the supply of money. Evaluate the impact of competition policy and other regulatory mechanisms on the activities of a selected organisation. [P6]
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Taryn awoke to the buzzing of the alarm beside her bed. As her eyes adjusted to the morning light, she saw the tacky flowered wallpaper and smelled that smell of a room that had been cleaned thousands of times with the same Lysol cleaner. At first she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t recollect where she was. After a few moments, Taryn remembered, she was at the Seaside Hotel. Her mother, father, and she had arrived at the little lived in hotel the night before after a 4-hour plane ride from Connecticut. Taryn loved Florida. She loved the heat, the sun, and, most of all, the ocean. The sound of TarynÃ¢â¬â¢s motherÃ¢â¬â¢s voice brought her out of her sleepiness. Ã¢â¬Å"Taryn! For godÃ¢â¬â¢s sake, get up. You are on vacation, a good child would definitely be up and showered and ready to go by now,Ã¢â¬ Taryn sighed at this remark. All through her child hood she had listened to that same phrase Ã¢â¬Å"a good child wouldÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ It was just one of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s ways to get her motivated, but it never worked. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m going, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going. What is the rush anyway? I thought dad said we werenÃ¢â¬â¢t doing anything special, we were just going to be spontaneous today?Ã¢â¬ Taryn replied with a smirk. Her father always tried to make their family vacations more exciting, but it NEVER worked out. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll see.Ã¢â¬ Her mother said, with one of her own little smirks. Ã¢â¬Å"Now get out of bed!!!Ã¢â¬ With a melodramatic sigh Taryn rolled over the side of the bed and drudged into the bathroom for a shower. She wondered to herself what her mom was up to. It was probably nothing, as usual. Taryn shoved the idea out of her mind and finished her shower and changed. Her dad walked into the hotel room as Taryn was brushing her long brown hair. Ã¢â¬Å"You ready yet kid?Ã¢â¬ he asked. He had a look on his face like he was up to something. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay! Tell me what is going on!Ã¢â¬ she shrieked with impatience. Ã¢â¬Å"Just get in the car and enjoy the ride,Ã¢â¬ he said, the look growing stronger. Taryn eagerly but cautiously obliged, throwing looks of curiosity at her father as they walked down the hall and got into the car. Her mother was already waiting, doing her makeup in the visor mirror. Taryn received another mischievous glance from her mother as she buckled her seatbelt. They drove for about 15 minutes, looking out at the glistening gulf water. The Morning Of The Dolphins :: essays research papers Taryn awoke to the buzzing of the alarm beside her bed. As her eyes adjusted to the morning light, she saw the tacky flowered wallpaper and smelled that smell of a room that had been cleaned thousands of times with the same Lysol cleaner. At first she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t recollect where she was. After a few moments, Taryn remembered, she was at the Seaside Hotel. Her mother, father, and she had arrived at the little lived in hotel the night before after a 4-hour plane ride from Connecticut. Taryn loved Florida. She loved the heat, the sun, and, most of all, the ocean. The sound of TarynÃ¢â¬â¢s motherÃ¢â¬â¢s voice brought her out of her sleepiness. Ã¢â¬Å"Taryn! For godÃ¢â¬â¢s sake, get up. You are on vacation, a good child would definitely be up and showered and ready to go by now,Ã¢â¬ Taryn sighed at this remark. All through her child hood she had listened to that same phrase Ã¢â¬Å"a good child wouldÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ It was just one of her motherÃ¢â¬â¢s ways to get her motivated, but it never worked. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m going, IÃ¢â¬â¢m going. What is the rush anyway? I thought dad said we werenÃ¢â¬â¢t doing anything special, we were just going to be spontaneous today?Ã¢â¬ Taryn replied with a smirk. Her father always tried to make their family vacations more exciting, but it NEVER worked out. Ã¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll see.Ã¢â¬ Her mother said, with one of her own little smirks. Ã¢â¬Å"Now get out of bed!!!Ã¢â¬ With a melodramatic sigh Taryn rolled over the side of the bed and drudged into the bathroom for a shower. She wondered to herself what her mom was up to. It was probably nothing, as usual. Taryn shoved the idea out of her mind and finished her shower and changed. Her dad walked into the hotel room as Taryn was brushing her long brown hair. Ã¢â¬Å"You ready yet kid?Ã¢â¬ he asked. He had a look on his face like he was up to something. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay! Tell me what is going on!Ã¢â¬ she shrieked with impatience. Ã¢â¬Å"Just get in the car and enjoy the ride,Ã¢â¬ he said, the look growing stronger. Taryn eagerly but cautiously obliged, throwing looks of curiosity at her father as they walked down the hall and got into the car. Her mother was already waiting, doing her makeup in the visor mirror. Taryn received another mischievous glance from her mother as she buckled her seatbelt. They drove for about 15 minutes, looking out at the glistening gulf water.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
We are in this room today, as children, to reflect on a sad truth. We have, today, been to several classes. Indeed, this is our weekly routine: school. Many of you dislike school but have you ever considered how lucky you are ? For instance, many children around the world are not as privileged as we are. According to the UNICEF, an estimated 250 million children in the world are in regular employment or as it is commonly referred to, suffer from the worst form of child labour At the moment, at the very same time as you and I are in this classroom, children in Soudan are working in coal mines are crawling in small tunnels which could collapse at any moment, causing death or serious injuries to the young miners. At the moment, girls in India are making bricks in the 40 degrees heat for house and are carrying them on their backs for up to as 10 miles to their destination. Also, at this same moment, children in Thailand are working in factories doing the same repetitive and tedious job all day long while dreaming of having the privilege to be educated. We are here today to fight against the worst form of child labour. Our opposite party might say that the role of children in child labour is essential to a family's economy. Many people in favor of child labour say that without children helping their parents in farms for example, the family will not be able to harvest the food in time resulting in starvation in wintertime and possible death. Those in favour of child labour ask us: as we protest against child labour, do we realize that millions of families would die of starvation ? This is why, those against child labour now fight against the worst forms of child labour. I believe that children should have the right to go to school and be properly educated. Don't you ? I believe that children should have the right to stop working when their work is unnecessary to their family's welfare. Don't you agree ? As one observer says: Ã¢â¬Å"We worry about what a child will become tomorrow , yet we forget that he or she is someone today.Ã¢â¬ I believe that childhood is one of the most important stage of life. It is a time that is precious, a child should grow up in innocence and should not be working. Someone once said: Ã¢â¬ All things are difficult before they are easy.Ã¢â¬ Yes, stopping the worst form of child labour will be difficult at first but with your help, we can make a difference ! I personally believe that a person with hope and courage can change the world ! Martin Luther King said: Ã¢â¬ All labour that uplifts humanity has dignity and importance and should be undertaken with painstaking excellence.Ã¢â¬ Our work to stop child labour will and can uplift humanity and change the lives of millions of children who work in the most horrific conditions. I believe that, together; we can change the world. But to do so, we will need help. We will need help to free the millions of children who suffer from the worst form of child labour. So join us, today, in the struggle to stop child labour !
Friday, January 3, 2020
Torture is morally wrong because it can affect an individual physically, socially and psychologically. This essay will address the physical affects and psychological affects towards people. Torture is unacceptable because is damages a personÃ¢â¬â¢s humanity, values, respect and reputation of the moral authorities. This essay will discuss two accounts for the moral wrongness of torture and they have been discovered by William TwiningÃ¢â¬â¢s and from his research he noted torture to be morally wrong since the rights of the victim is violated, secondly David Sussman who believes torture is morally wrong because the victim is turned against the victim herself. Torture includes forcing the victim to 1)perform sexual activities, or pose in a sexual manner , 2)beatings and burns 3) placing hoods over the head and covering the eyes by using duct tape 4)and waterboarding. Waterboarding is the most commonly used for torture in nowadays, this method involves placing a cloth over the victims face and causes the victim to experience the sensation of drowning. Torture may affect someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s life socially because the individual shall find it hard to make friends, difficult to adapt to a new culture and they will feel uncertain and lost about the future (Gerrity et al 2001). Unfortunately torture will also make the victim feel guilty and ashamed about themselves because of the humiliation they have experienced. Lastly, the psychological symptoms impact the victim which includes anxiety, moodShow MoreRelatedMoral Judgements Are Morally Wrong?2025 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesis an area of philosophy that deals with what is morally right and what is morally wrong behavior. Inside of ethics, there are two major views of thinking when making choices about different principles. Deontology is the idea that choices should be made based on obeying moral norms. Moral judgements are contained in an act alone. A deontologist would decide on the moral worth of an action based on the intention of the action. Immanuel Kant, an eighteenth century German philosopher, is consideredRead MoreEthics : Inventing Right And Wrong1865 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesobjective values.Ã¢â¬ Mackie holds that moral judgements are beliefs and that moral statements are propositions, meaning that they are capable of being true or false. However, for Mackie, all such propositions are false, and thus one is in error about what they are actually claiming. In this paper I will summarize two of MackieÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments for why we should accept error theory: the argument from relativity and the argument from queerness. I will then explain two possible positions error theory leavesRead MoreAn Analysis of Nagels Personal Rights and Public Spaces2240 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIntroduction: This paper will accomplish two tasks. First, it will briefly outline the main points of Thomas NagelÃ¢â¬â¢s argument in Ã¢â¬Å"Personal Rights and Public SpaceÃ¢â¬ . Secondly, it will examine and discuss the portion of his argument that I find to be the most problematic. 1. In his paper Nagel argues that rights are not merely self-evident and therefore do require some good arguments to ground them. He aims to establish that rights are justified by the status theory. We will come to see what heRead MoreA Modern Controversy: the Case of George Tiller Essay8892 Words Ã |Ã 36 Pagesthe Case of George Tiller To some anti-abortionists George Tiller, who was shot dead on Sunday, was a mass murderer known as Tiller the Killer. To his patients and many pro-choice supporters, he was a hero committed to women in need of help. For two decades, Dr Tiller spent his life looking over his shoulder. He had become a lightning rod for anti-abortion activists and in 1993 survived an attempt on his life. He rarely talked about his work for fear of attacks against himself or his family. DrRead MoreAnimal Rights and Human Wrongs6049 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesstrong, as som e peop le supp ose, to lead us to be veg etarians and to se riously curtail, if not eliminate, our use of non-human animals in `scientific experiments designed to benefit us? To fully ap preciate this question let me contrast it with two different ones: Are there limits on how we can legitimately treat rocks? And: are there limits on how we can legitima tely treat other human beings? The an swer to th e first ques tion is pre suma bly `No. Well, thats not q uite right. There are somRead MoreCriticisms Against Ethical Theories8474 Words Ã |Ã 34 Pagesgood) can be something like the happiness of all people or the spreading of peace and safety. Anythi ng which contributes to that goal is right and anything which does not is wrong. Actions are thought to have no moral value in themselves (no rightness or wrongness), but only get moral value from whether or not they lead to the goal. John Stuart Mill was a famous consequentialist. Consequentialists would say that killing people is not right or wrong in itself, it depends on the outcome. Killing an